Based on worldview analysis and personal inventory, human beings are created through God, and he found himself in a unique and authoritative way via the Bible. God has embedded into his creation a moral structure and design that can be discovered by anyone who is looking for it, whether they are religious or not. Within the health care settings, nurses should be aware of their own spirituality to provide appropriate and relevant spiritual care to patients. Research has it that spirituality positively affects and improves physical and psychological health, quality of life, health promotion behaviors, and disease prevention activities. After establishing a trusting relationship with patients by the nurses, the patients reach a point of learning together, and spiritual caring occurs (Coleman, Hood, & Streib, 2018).
Taves, Asprem, & Ihm (2018) believes that nursing assessment of a patient’s spiritual life includes a review of the patient’s faith, connectedness, life and self-responsibility, life satisfaction, fellowship and community. Based on worldview analysis and personal inventory, it is important to know a patient’s cultural background and assess his or her values about his or her health care problem and impending treatment. Conversely, spirituality is universal, and illness impacts spirituality. Nurses must be willing to assess and integrate patient beliefs into care, and they must be willing to consult with/refer to appropriate spiritual expert. Conducting a spiritual assessment is a powerful way to open up the topic of spirituality with a patient and/or the patient’s family. In order to do this, one can observe religious symbols the patients may be wearing, religious texts they carry, or simply by asking the patients questions about what is important to them (Taves, Asprem, & Ihm, 2018).
According to postmodern relativism based on worldview analysis and personal inventory, there is no objective truth about what is right or wrong; truth is left for to an individual’s or a culture’s beliefs, desires, and preferences. People are critical of postmodern relativism, argued that it is potentially dangerous if all knowledge is relative, it becomes impossible to judge actions or criticize. Postmodernism may be characterized by the belief that there is no one rational solutions to a problem. Postmodern thinking rejects foundationalism and tends to be relativistic, irrational, and nihilistic. Relativism is the philosophy that there are no moral rules that apply to all cultures or all people in one culture and that no country or person should impose their moral rules on any other country or person. Relativism explains why there are so many truth claims, helps to liberate oppressed peoples, and erodes all public trust in authorities (Hauer, 2015).
When it comes to worldview analysis and personal inventory, scientism shows that the only truths that exist are those that can be scientifically demonstrated (verified by the 5 senses). If a person cannot observe it, then it is outside of the realm of truth. If this is true there is no such thing as theological truth. It is the belief system and ideology that claims science and scientific method alone can provide true knowledge and understanding of the world. It has a strong commitment to only empirical evidence (observation and experimentation) (Boddice, 2017). Logical positivism offers a theory of meaning, which aims to show that certain philosophical concepts and propositions are meaningless, so that disputes about them are empty. It fails to appear meaningless in ordinary language, because ordinary language is deceptive and non-ideal in various ways. So to solve problems of philosophy, one needs to construct an ideal language based on positivist theory of meaning. Problems of metaphysics arise because some propositions appear meaningful, but they are not. Logical positivism is a technique which comprises only two types of significant statements: analytic statements (including logic and mathematics), and empirical statements, subject to experimental verification. Anything outside of this framework is an empty concept (Bluhm, 2015)……