Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease which happens to be the primary cause of death worldwide. It normally involves the lungs, but any organ may be infected, and this is the leading cause of mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is a communicable chronic granulomatous disease which is caused as a result of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB disease is an active bacterial which multiply and cause clinically active disease, and this occurs if the initial immune response is inadequate; contagious; and certain individuals at higher risk (immunosuppressed, DM). When active disease develops within first two years of infection, it is called primary TB (Rijkers, 2019).
Anytime TB infected people, probably people with active TB in their lung cough, spit, speak or sneeze, it goes into the air, however, people with latent TB do not spread the disease. Active infection happens regularly in people with HIV/AIDS and in individual who smoke. The actual cause of TB is as a result of Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is a small, aerobic, non motile bacillus. The excessive lipid content of this pathogen accounts for many of its uncommon clinical characteristics. It replicates every sixteen to twenty hours, which is a very slow rate compared with different bacteria, which usually replicates in less than an hour (Rijkers, 2019).
The overall signs and symptoms which can be associated with TB include fever, chills, night sweats, loss of appetite, weight loss, and fatigue. Nail clubbing can additionally occur if tuberculosis contamination becomes active, but involves the lungs, and this takes place in about ninety percent of cases. Signs and Symptoms can also include chest pain and a prolonged cough generating sputum. Approximately twenty five percent of those people would not show any sign