A summary paper on: Colorectal cancer, intestinal obstruction, hemorrhoids, appendicitis, peritonitis, gastroenteritis, ulcerative colitis, crohn’s disease, and diverticular disease. Their risk factors, clinical manifestations, treatments, and nursing interventions
- Colorectal cancer, its risk factors, its clinical manifestations, treatments, and nursing
Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is the cancer of the rectum or colon. Most CRCs are adenocarcinoma, meaning a tumor that arises from a gland in the epithelial layer of the colon. Adenocarcinoma grows slowly and begins as a polyp. If caught early when it’s still benign, it can be removed during a colonoscopy. If left untreated, the polyp will grow and risk of malignancy increases. Many times, the client is asymptomatic but occult blood is discovered in the stool during a rectal exam.
Clinical manifestations include insidious onset, often do not appear until disease is in advanced stages, change in bowel habits, unexplained weight loss, vague abdominal pain, symptoms of cancer in the left side of the colon appear earlier, symptoms of cancerous lesions, rectal bleeding is most common, alternating constipation and diarrhea, change in stool caliber, narrow, ribbon-like, sensation of incomplete evacuation, obstruction, weakness and fatigue, iron-deficiency anemia and occult bleeding, complications, obstruction, bleeding, perforation, peritonitis, and fistula formation.
The treatment of colorectal cancer includesdukes’stages (modified staging system), surgery include resection and anastomosis, abdominal perineal resection. temporary, colostomy, permanent colostomy, and construction of J pouch. chemo, and radiation.General nursing interventions are to closely monitor I&O, closely observe for visible or occult signs of bleeding, reduce intake of high fat/meat products with discharge teaching, and explain the need for and side effects of chemo and radiation therapy(Winkelman, Ignatavicius, Workman, & Ignatavicius, 2013).
- Intestinal obstruction, its causes, its clinical manifestations, treatments and nursing interventions
Intestinal obstruction exists when blockage prevents the normal flow of intestinal contents through the intestinal tract. It can be partial or complete. and is classified as mechanical or non-mechanical (functional).Clinical manifestations of mechanical internal obstruction include cramping mid-abdomen; pain that comes and goes due to stretching of intestine and peristaltic attempts to push bowel contents past obstruction. Strangulation can occur especially with volvulus constant pain. Manifestations of non-mechanical intestinal obstruction include constant diffuse discomfort,obstruction high in small intestine, obstruction in distal small intestine, obstruction of large intestine, and auscultation of high-pitched bowel sounds proximal to obstruction called borborygmi.